10 Ways Technology Hijacks Your Behavior

10 Ways Technology Hijacks Your Behavior

From push notifications and reminders to ratings and rewards programs, technology has the power to nudge you to think and act in specific ways at specific times.

Addictive design keeps you hooked, algorithms filter the ideas and options you’re exposed to and the data trail you leave behind comes back to haunt (or target) you later. The virtual world is full of features and ads that may trick you to adopt beliefs, buy products or just stare at the screen longer.

These tricks can have good intentions: A fitness app might encourage you to run an extra mile, while a calendar alert might remind you of a big meeting. Other times, tech might distract you from important tasks, spending quality time with loved ones or activities that would serve your best interests.

Read on for 10 ways technology is hijacking your behavior, for better or for worse.

1. It beckons.
Anyone who has a smartphone knows that it can be difficult to ignore that buzzing, beeping, incessantly illuminated screen, even in situations when it detracts from your presence, such as in meetings or at the dinner table.

App makers push notifications to get users to engage. That’s why, for instance, Instagram tells you when someone you follow has posted for the first time in a while, luring you to open the app and take a look.

One of today’s most prominent activists working to raise awareness about tech’s influence over our attention, behavior and overall well-being is Tristan Harris. He formerly served as product philosopher at Google, and he’s the co-founder of the Center for Human Technology (and the Time Well Spent movement).

In one essay, Harris explains that smartphones and the apps that run on them resemble slot machines in their design. As a result, the average person checks their phone 150 times a day, often unconsciously, and that’s because, when they do, they are setting themselves up to receive a “variable reward.” They might get nothing — no new notifications or messages — or they might get a link to a funny meme from a friend, a photo of a baby or news of progress on a project they’re working on.

There’s also an obligation factor that drives the impulse to check personal devices: We might miss something important if we don’t, or we might offend someone by not responding quickly enough or reciprocating a gesture.

2. It takes up mental space.
Even when we’re not looking at our phones, and we’ve made a conscious effort to ignore them, such as turning off notifications and ringers or powering them off entirely, they still can distract us.

Researchers from the University of Texas at Austin, the University of California, San Diego and Disney Research recently conducted a study and found that when a person’s smartphone is nearby — on the table or even in the same room — that person’s performance on a cognitive task (requiring problem-solving and reasoning) will likely suffer.

Related: Why Just Having Your Phone Near You Messes With Your Brain

The diminished ability is akin to what sleep deprivation might cause, the researchers found, noting that people performed best on tasks when their phone was in another room and worst when their phone was on the table, whether the phone was on or off.

In a summary of their findings in Harvard Business Review, the researchers explain that “humans learn to automatically pay attention to things that are habitually relevant to them, even when they are focused on a different task.” Ignoring something that’s calling for your attention takes a lot of effort and consumes your attention. Just think of a time when you were working on something and someone called your name from across the room. Chances are, you lost focus.

3. It alters your perception of your options.
The internet opens up a whole new world. You might Google “cafes” and discover a new lunch spot that you otherwise might not have known about. You might need a new pair of shoes, and rather than being constricted to the options local brick-and-mortar retailers have to offer, you can pick from countless pairs and have one shipped to your door.

Even though we theoretically have access to what can seem like every product, place of business and source of information via the web, we often browse these options through platforms that filter them for us, to narrow down the seemingly infinite array. What we don’t always think about, Harris explains, is that we might miss a great option if we only choose from what an algorithm serves up.

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Harris provides the hypothetical scenario of a group of friends searching Yelp for a nearby bar to go to after dinner. “The group falls for the illusion that Yelp’s menu represents a complete set of choices for where to go,” he writes. “While looking down at their phones, they don’t see the park across the street with a band playing live music. They miss the pop-up gallery on the other side of the street serving crepes and coffee.”

4. It reinforces your beliefs.
The 2016 U.S. presidential election heightened public awareness of a concept known as the “filter bubble,” coined by Upworthy co-founder Eli Pariser and explored in his 2011 book The Filter Bubble: How the New Personalized Web Is Changing What We Read and How We Think.

Simply put, the filter bubble is a phenomenon that occurs with users online. Of course, this dynamic exists offline, too — we make friends who have similar interests and ideologies, for example. This might limit our thinking, but can it influence our behavior?

A 2016 study published in the Croatian Medical Journal explored the effects of filter bubble on the personal health information people saw online. For example, if someone has a network of friends that don’t believe in the effectiveness and safety of vaccinations, they might be more likely to search “vaccines and children” and receive search results that suggest vaccinations are dangerous. This also has the risk of reinforcing any preconceived notions, due to confirmation bias.

“The search history, social network, personal preferences, geography and a number of other factors influence the information found by the searcher,” study author Harald Holone wrote in a summary of his findings.

Given the fact there is so much information online, we may have the illusion that we are exposed to a range of ideas when really we’re building a virtual echo chamber for ourselves. And due to the addictive nature of technology, it’s difficult to escape the filter bubble without a conscious effort. Some people have actively tried to counter itby collecting Facebook friends with opposing viewpoints and liking pages that don’t interest them.

5. It collects information about you that can be used to influence you later.
Related to the filter bubble concept, all web and social platform users are familiar with how targeted advertising works. You Google something, look for a product on Amazon, put an item in your virtual shopping cart, browse flight booking options — then, maybe hours or even weeks later, you see an ad for whatever you were eyeing earlier.

It’s pretty clear what’s happening here: Sellers are trying to influence your decision to buy. There are ways to get around this type of targeting, from adjusting your Facebook settingsto clicking on individual ads and specifying that you wish not to see ads of that nature. Or, you can install an ad blocker to spare yourself all together.

Related: The Shocking Lessons I Learned After I Quit My Social Media Addiction in 3 Days in the Desert

Increasingly, people are worried that their information might be used for more than just selling them stuff. In March 2018, news surfaced of a data breach that resulted in data of about 50 million Facebook users getting into the hands of voter-targeting consultancy Cambridge Analytica. Because Cambridge Analytica had ties to the Trump campaign prior to the 2016 election, some suspect that data may have been harnessed to sway voters via targeted political messaging.

Regardless of how the data was used, the revelation has prompted Facebook to crack down on third-party developers’ access to user data, clarify privacy settings and cut off the use of data from third-party aggregators to supplement its own ad targeting.

6. It keeps serving up the next thing.
Social media feeds allow users to scroll endlessly, but that’s only one example of the never-ending waterfall of information that users encounter online. After watching a video on Netflix, Facebook or another site that hosts video content, you’ll often see a countdown with a preview of another video that will autoplay after a few seconds. This tactic serves to keep you engaged and watching something new, even when you don’t intend to.

Even Entrepreneur.com autoplays videos after one finishes. Content creators and distributors naturally want you to keep reading and watching. That’s also why we have links to other stories on article pages.

Usually, these options are related to the first piece of content a user consumed, algorithmically generated or hand-picked because they are likely to be relevant to someone based on the content they selected initially.

Some content providers have learned over time that there is a limit to the effectiveness of autoplay, when it happens right out the gate. Overwhelmingly, users respond negatively when videos autoplay (especially with sound on) if they haven’t yet opted in to watch on say, a page they’ve visited with the goal of reading an article. Many are moving away from this model, driven by video advertising, which bombards users and often drives them away.

7. It shortens your attention span.
“Ten years ago, before the iPad and iPhone were mainstream, the average person had an attention span of about 12 seconds,” said Adam Alter, the author of Irresistible: The Rise of Addictive Technology and the Business of Keeping Us Hooked, in an interview with NPR’s Fresh Air. “Research suggests that there’s been a drop from 12 to eight seconds … shorter than the attention of the average goldfish, which is nine seconds.”

Alter is not the only one to observe this phenomenon. Nicholas Carr, author of The Shallows: What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains, preceded his book with a 2008 Atlanticarticle in which he explained, “My mind now expects to take in information the way the net distributes it: in a swiftly moving stream of particles. Once I was a scuba diver in the sea of words. Now I zip along the surface like a guy on a Jet Ski.”

Because there is so much to see online, with hyperlinks, notifications and the mere existence other sites and apps, distractions are hard to resist. Tweets, then a maximum of 140 characters (and today a still brief 280), are easily skimmable, and posts on other social media platforms are often equally digestible at first glance.

We’re neurologically programmed to seek the pleasure or reward of new bite-sized pieces of content provide, which causes us to enter a “dopamine loop,” behavioral psychologist Susan Weinschenk explains in Psychology Today. “When you bring up the feed on one of your favorite apps the dopamine loop has become engaged,” Weinschenk writes. “With every photo you scroll through, headline you read or link you go to, you are feeding the loop which just makes you want more. It takes a lot to reach satiation, and in fact you might never be satisfied. Chances are what makes you stop is that someone interrupts you.”

8. It can trick you into thinking it’s something more.
In the movie Her, Joaquin Phoenix’s character, Theodore, falls in love with his virtual assistant, Samantha. But this phenomenon isn’t confined to science fiction. Humans have the potential to form relationships with artificially intelligent personas. Even if we know we’re not talking to a real person when we’re typing back and forth with a chatbot, for example, if the AI seems sophisticated or real enough, our minds might get tricked into interacting with it as if it were.

Liesl Yearsley sold her machine-learned powered virtual assistant startup Cognea to IBM Watson in 2014. As she writes for MIT Technology Review, because of the always-on, helpful nature of AI, people tend to perceive assistants as loyal and trusted companions, engaging in lengthy conversations and sharing personal details. She and her team built assistants with different objectives coded into their interactions with humans, e.g. boosting sales.

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“The giant companies at the forefront of AI — across social media, search, and ecommerce — drive the value of their shares by increasing traffic, consumption and addiction to their technology,” Yearsley writes. “They do not have bad intentions, but the nature of capital markets may push us toward AI hell-bent on influencing our behavior toward these goals.”

Speaking of the blurry line between humans and AI, ethicists have explored questions such as whether it’s OK to inflict violence on robots.

9. It turns everyday actions into games.
Gamifying certain behaviors is a powerful way to incentivize people to engage in them. Think of how fitness apps encourage you to set goals, compare your performance to other users and congratulate you when you hit milestones. Or, how brands you shop with remind you about the number of loyalty points you’ve accumulated and entice you with the next reward you’re eligible to unlock.

Then, there’s gamification as it pertains to work. For example, ride-hailing apps such as Uber manipulate drivers, who are independent contractors and don’t have scheduled shifts, to stay on the road longer. When a driver is about to log off, Uber will sometimes push them a notification that they may be eligible for a pay bonus if they continue shepherding customers for a bit longer. In the past, it’s offered tiered bonuses to drivers who complete a certain number of rides on busy nights such as Halloween or New Year’s Eve.

Uber also issues praise such as “Above and Beyond” to drivers who perform well based on rider feedback, according to The New York Times. The Times also reported that Uber has “experimented with video game techniques, graphics and non-cash rewards of little value that can prod drivers into working longer and harder — and sometimes at hours and locations that are less lucrative for them.”

Uber is just one gig worker platform that uses gamification tactics to incentivize its workers. Instacart, Postmates and DoorDash — other platforms that rely on gig workers — offer performance metrics and other information designed to incentivize output.

10. It changes how we communicate.
Technology is a double-edged sword, in many ways. It distracts us, but it also gives us access to information and allows us to communicate globally and efficiently. The same goes for its implications for how we communicate. The ability to type quickly and distribute our ideas via the web makes mass communication possible to any individual with an internet connection. Social media helps us maintain communication with friends and family who live far away, or helps us establish relationships with people with common interests or potential collaborators we wouldn’t otherwise know.

But some research has shown that the more a person uses technology to communicate, the greater anxiety they experience when it’s time for a face-to-face interaction. Some parents raising children in the smartphone and tablet era limit their kids’ “screen time,” because they believe emerging research that shows that speech and language development hinges on everyday human interactions.

Then there’s the concept of “phubbing” — snubbing an in-person companion by looking at your phone. A 2016 study published in Computers in Human Behavior found that 17 percent of smartphone users “phub” four times a day. More recently, a 2018 Journal of Applied Social Psychology study revealed that when people get phubbed, they perceived the quality of their communication and relationship with the phubber to be negatively affected. This was because getting phubbed reduced their sense of belonging.

Automation Is Not Tomorrow — It’s Today

Automation Is Not Tomorrow -- It's Today

“The future is right now — it’s just unevenly distributed.”  — William Gibson

I am writing from inside the tech bubble to let you know that we are coming for your jobs.

I recently met a pair of old friends for drinks in Manhattan. One is an executive who works at a software company in New York. They replace call center workers with artificial intelligence software. I asked her whether she believed her work would result in job losses. She responded matter-of-factly, “We are getting better and better at things that will make large numbers of workers extraneous. And we will succeed. There needs to be a dramatic reskilling of the workforce, but that’s not going to be practical for a lot of people. It’s impossible to avoid a lost generation of workers.” Her confidence in this assessment was total. The conversation then quickly shifted to more pleasant topics.

Related: The How-To: Using Chatbots As A Tool For Customer Service

I later met with a friend who’s a Boston-based venture capitalist. He told me he felt “a little uneasy” about investing in software and robotics companies that, if successful, would eliminate large numbers of jobs. “But they’re good opportunities,” he noted, estimating that 70 percent of the startups he’s seeing will contribute to job losses in other parts of the economy.

In San Francisco, I had breakfast with an operations manager for a large tech company. He told me, “I just helped set up a factory that had 70 percent fewer workers than one even a few years ago would have had, and most of them are high-end technicians on laptops. I have no idea what normal people are going to do in a few years.”

Normal people. Seventy percent of Americans consider themselves part of the middle class. Chances are, you do, too. Right now some of the smartest people in the country are trying to figure out how to replace you with an overseas worker, a cheaper version of you or, increasingly, a widget, software program or robot. There’s no malice in it. The market rewards business leaders for making things more efficient. Efficiency doesn’t love normal people. It loves getting things done in the most cost-effective way possible.

A wave of automation and job loss is no longer a dystopian vision of the future — it’s well underway. The numbers have been telling a story for a while now that we have been ignoring. More and more people of prime working age have been dropping out of the workforce. There’s a growing mass of the permanently displaced. Automation is accelerating to a point where it will soon threaten our social fabric and way of life.

Experts and researchers project an unprecedented wave of job destruction coming with the development of artificial intelligence, robotics, software and automation. The Obama White House published a report in December 2016 that predicted 83 percent of jobs where people make less than $20 per hour will be subject to automation or replacement. Between 2.2 and 3.1 million car, bus and truck driving jobs in the U.S. will be eliminated by the advent of self-driving vehicles.

Read that last sentence again: The government is confident that between 2 and 3 million Americans who drive vehicles for a living will lose their jobs in the next 10 to 15 years. Driving a truck is the most common occupation in 29 states. Self-driving vehicles are one of the most obvious job-destroying technologies, but there are similar innovations ahead that will displace cashiers, fast-food workers, customer service representatives, administrative assistants and even well-paid white-collar jobs like wealth managers, lawyers and insurance agents, all within the span of a few short years. Suddenly out of work, millions will struggle to find a new job, particularly those at the lower end of the skill ladder.

Automation has already eliminated about 4 million manufacturing jobs in the U.S. since 2000. Instead of finding new jobs, a lot of those people left the workforce and didn’t come back. The U.S. labor force participation rate is now at only 62.9 percent, a rate below that of nearly all other industrialized economies and about the same as that of El Salvador and the Ukraine. Some of this is driven by an aging population, which presents its own set of problems, but much of it is driven by automation and a lower demand for labor.

labor-participation-rate

Each 1 percent decline in the labor participation rate equates to approximately 2.5 million Americans dropping out. The number of working-age Americans who aren’t in the workforce has surged to a record 95 million. Ten years into the nation’s recovery from the financial crisis and 95 million working-age Americans not in the workforce — I’ve taken to calling this phenomenon The Great Displacement.

Related: Learning to Work With Robots Is How You Can Save Your Job

The lack of mobility and growth has created a breeding ground for political hostility and social ills. High rates of unemployment and underemployment are linked to an array of social problems, including substance abuse, domestic violence, child abuse and depression. Today 40 percent of American children are born outside of married households, due in large part to the crumbling marriage rate among working-class adults, and overdoses and suicides have overtaken auto accidents as leading causes of death. More than half of American households already rely on the government for direct income in some form. In some parts of the U.S., 20 percent of working age adults are now on disability, with increasing numbers citing mood disorders. What Americans who cannot find jobs find instead is despair. If you care about communities and our way of life, you care about people having jobs.

This is the most pressing economic and social issue of our time; our economy is evolving in ways that will make it more and more difficult for people with lower levels of education to find jobs and support themselves. Soon, these difficulties will afflict the white-collar world. It’s a boiling pot getting hotter one degree at a time. And we’re the frog.

In my role as Founder of Venture for America, I spent the past six years working with hundreds of startups across the country in cities like Detroit, New Orleans, Cincinnati, Providence, Cleveland, Baltimore, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Birmingham, Columbus, Pittsburgh, San Antonio, Charlotte, Miami, Nashville, Atlanta and Denver. Some of these places were bustling industrial centers in the late 19th and 20th centuries only to find themselves faced with population loss and economic transition as the 20th century wound down. Venture for America trains young aspiring entrepreneurs to work at startups in cities like these to generate job growth. We’ve had many successes. But the kinds of jobs created tend to be very specific; every business I worked with will hire the very best people it can find — particularly startups. When entrepreneurs start companies and expand, they generally aren’t hiring a down-on-his-or-her-luck worker in need of a break. They are hiring the strongest contributors with the right mix of qualities to help an early-stage company succeed. Most jobs in a startup essentially require a college degree. That excludes 68 percent of the population right there. And some of these companies are lifting further inefficiencies out of the system — reducing jobs in other places even while hiring their own new workers.

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There’s a scene in Ben Horowitz’s book The Hard Things about Hard Things in which he depicts the CEO of a company meeting with his two lieutenants. The CEO says to one of them, “You’re going to do everything in your power to make this deal work.” Then he turns to the other and says, “Even if he does everything right, it’s probably not going to work. Your job is to fix it.” That’s where we’re at with the American economy. Unprecedented advances are accelerating in real time and wreaking havoc on lives and communities around the country, particularly on those least able to adapt and adjust.

We must do all we can to reduce the worst effects of the Great Displacement — it should be the driving priority of corporations, government and non-profits for the foreseeable future. We should invest in education, job training and placement, apprenticeships, relocation, entrepreneurship and tax incentives — anything to help make hiring and retaining workers appealing. And then we should acknowledge that, for millions of people, it’s not going to work.

In the U.S. we want to believe that the market will resolve most situations. In this case, the market will not solve the problem — quite the opposite. The market is driven to reduce costs. It will look to find the cheapest way to perform tasks. The market doesn’t want to provide for unemployed truck drivers or cashiers. Uber is going to get rid of its drivers as soon as it can. Its job isn’t to hire lots of people — its job is to move customers around as efficiently as possible. The market will continue to throw millions of people out of the labor force as automation and technology improve. In order for society to continue to function and thrive when tens of millions of Americans don’t have jobs, we will need to rethink the relationship between work and being able to pay for basic needs. And then, we will have to determine ways to convey the psychic and social benefits of work in other ways.

There is really only one entity — the federal government — that can realistically reformat society in ways that will prevent large swaths of the country from becoming jobless zones of derelict buildings and broken people. Non-profits will be at the frontlines of fighting the decline, but most of their activities will be like Band-Aids on top of an infected wound. State governments are generally hamstrung with balanced budget requirements and limited resources.

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Even if they don’t talk about it in public, many technologists themselves fear a backlash. My friends in Silicon Valley want to be positive, but many are buying bunkers and escape hatches just in case. One reason that solutions are daunting to even my most optimistic friends is that, while their part of the American economy is flourishing, little effort is being made to distribute the gains from automation and reverse the decline in opportunities. To do so would require an active, stable, invigorated unified federal government willing to make large bets. This, unfortunately, is not what we have. We have an indebted state rife with infighting, dysfunction and outdated ideas and bureaucracies from bygone eras, along with a populace that cannot agree on basic facts like vote totals or climate change. Our politicians offer half-hearted solutions that will at best nibble at the edges of the problem. The budget for Research and Development in the Department of Labor is only $4 million. We have a 1960s-era government that has few solutions to the problems of 2018.

This must change if our way of life is to continue. We need a revitalized, dynamic government to rise to the challenge posed by the largest economic transformation in the history of mankind.

The above may sound like science fiction to you. But you’re reading this with a supercomputer in your pocket (or reading it on the supercomputer itself) and Donald Trump was elected president. Doctors can fix your eyes with lasers, but your local mall just closed. We are living in unprecedented times. The future without jobs will come to resemble either the cultivated benevolence of Star Trek or the desperate scramble for resources of Mad Max. Unless there is a dramatic course correction, I fear we are heading toward the latter.

Related: Emerging Ethical Concerns In the Age of Artificial Intelligence

Our society has already been shaped by large-scale changes in the economy due to technological advances. It turns out that Americans have been dealing with the lack of meaningful opportunities by getting married less and becoming less and less functional. The fundamental message is that we are already on the edge of dystopia, with hundreds of thousands of families and communities being pushed into oblivion.

Education and retraining won’t address the gaps; the goalposts are now moving and many affected workers are well past their primes. We need to establish an updated form of capitalism — I call it Human-Centered Capitalism or Human Capitalism for short — to amend our current version of institutional capitalism that will lead us toward ever-increasing automation accompanied by social ruin. We must make the market serve humanity rather than have humanity continue to serve the market. We must simultaneously become more dynamic and more empathetic as a society. We must change and grow faster than most think possible.

When the next downturn hits, hundreds of thousands of people will wake up to do their jobs only to be told that they’re no longer needed. Their factory or retail store or office or mall or business or truck stop or agency will close. They will look for another job and, this time, they will not find one. They will try to keep up a brave face, but the days and weeks will pass and they will become more and more defeated. They will almost always blame themselves for their lot. They will say things like, “I wish I’d applied myself more in school,” or “I should have picked another job.” They’ll burn through their meager savings. Their family lives and communities will suffer. Some will turn to substance abuse or watch too much TV. Their health will slip — the ailments they’ve been working through will seem twice as painful. Their marriages will fail. They will lose their sense of self-worth. Their physical environments will decay around them and their loved ones will become reminders of their failure.

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For every displaced worker, there will be two or three others who have their shifts and hours reduced, their benefits cut and their already precarious financial lives pushed to the brink. They will try to consider themselves lucky even as their hopes for the future dim.

Meanwhile, in Manhattan and Silicon Valley and Washington D.C., my friends and I will be busier than ever fighting to stay current and climb within our own hypercompetitive environments. We will read articles with concern about the future and think about how to redirect our children to more fertile professions and livelihoods. We will retweet something and contribute here and there. We will occasionally reflect on the fates of others and shake our heads, determined to be among the winners in whatever the new economy brings.

The logic of the meritocracy is leading us to ruin, because we are collectively primed to ignore the voices of the millions getting pushed into economic distress by the grinding wheels of automation and innovation. We figure they’re complaining or suffering because they’re losers.

We need to break free of this logic of the marketplace before it’s too late.

We must reshape and accelerate society to bring us all to higher ground. We must find new ways to organize ourselves independent of the values that the marketplace assigns to each and every one of us.

As Bismarck said, “If revolution there is to be, let us rather undertake it not undergo it.” Society will change either before or after the revolution. I choose before.

We are more than the numbers on our paychecks — and we are going to have to prove it very quickly.